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The Counselor's Corner


Overcoming Anger Biblically

Dr. Daryl L. Poe, D.Min.
Can Christians overcome anger or must they merely maintain control through management techniques?    In answering this question, the primary motivation for researching anger was to promote personal and corporate sanctification.    Throughout my youth I was frequently admonished by many well intentioned adults about my tempter.   I was told that if I didn’t get it under control I was headed for serious trouble.    They were right. My behavior at times was obviously volatile and the results were undeniably destructive. I had a short fuse, and when it went off, anyone and anything within a 5 mile radius was a potential wrath recipient.   Down deep, I knew each rebuke was a fair and accurate assessment centered on a genuine concern for my welfare. 

I had earned the designation of an angry young man.  Still, it was especially hard to hear, since no biblical guidance was forthcoming. The best anyone could muster up was that being angry was a matter of choice.  Telling someone dealing with anger issues, “You have to choose not to be angry” is as like telling an obese person to “choose not to eat.”   Neither is a realistic nor sustainable choice.  I knew there must be some real hope. 

The research was conducted utilizing a polemic examination of secular psychology in contrast to biblical nouthetic counseling.     To reach a defensible conclusion it was vitally important to understand anger and more specifically, its relationship to the Christian life.    Many relevant questions were posed. How anger is best defined and what are the causes of anger?   Is anger morally good, bad, or neutral? Is anger universal or only a problem for an unfortunate few for whom it is genetically determined like red hair?     

Can Christians truly overcome anger?   The title asserts that for the disciple of Christ, it is not only greatly preferred over management techniques, but can be assured.  The ministry of godly counsel must be personally applicable, not systematically theoretical.  Biblical counselors deal with eternal souls seeking victory, not diagnosed psychological issues requiring control measures.  

Nouthetic counseling is the most biblically defensible approach for any “angry Christian” seeking to conform to the image of Christ.   The implications of overcoming sinful anger range from individual peace, true humility and servanthood to church-wide reconciliation, unification and corporate sanctification.  

Psychoanalyzing Anger  

So what actually is this “thing” called anger? The question may seem foolish. We all think we know what anger is, because everyone has felt it either as a momentary irritation or as full-blown rage. Dr. Robert Allen, a leading expert in the field of anger management defines anger from a strictly biological perspective. “Anger is a natural reaction to a failure in homeostasis, or the organism’s tendency to maintain a stable biological condition.” He believes that human beings are programmed (presumably by nature) to have their needs met by the surrounding environment. From infancy, when needs are unmet, equilibrium is disrupted and it is perceived as a threat to the physical or psychological well being of the individual. Anger is simply a universal emotional response expressing the craving to return to homeostasis. [1]      

Like other emotions, anger is accompanied by physiological and biological changes such as an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, energy hormones, adrenaline and noradrenalin.[2] To the degree humans experience these biological changes influences how anger is expressed. Closely linked to anger is a biologically programmed survival mechanism known as “the fight-or-flight response.” Whenever the fight-or-flight response is activated, anger is more likely to become aggressive.[3]  

Psychologists see our environment as yet another factor that determines how we express anger.  How we manage anger is largely a learned behavior—and the lessons are absorbed, gradually and generally without our awareness, from our family of origin.[4] Research on the intergenerational transmission of anger by the Family Transition Project in 2003 provided “good scientific support” for what many psychologist suspected, “the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree.”[5]

But it’s not only nurture but according to research conducted by Harvard psychologist Jerome Kagan, it is also nature.   Specifically, low levels of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase (MAOA), which is responsible for breaking down serotonin; have been associated with high levels of aggression and violence.[6]   Many psychologists report that SSRI antidepressants or anti-seizure or mood stabilizers result in a remarkable improvement in the intensity of the anger response.[7]

In addition to the biological and environmental influences upon anger, psychologists recognize that there are external and internal stimuli which set the stage for the anger response, which they label “triggers.” These triggers are the actions or inactions of others, or times and places, or memories or current thoughts they claim bring on an anger episode. “Most commonly reported triggers” show that anger typically develops in response to unwarranted and sometimes unexpected, aversive interpersonal behavior. The three categories of common anger triggers are; verbal, motor—physical contact and visual observation.   Most are negative, unexpected and are initiated by a well-known acquaintance. [8]

While psychologists believe it is important that angry clients receive recognized diagnosis and be eligible for treatment by knowledgeable practitioners, neither the DSM IV nor the ICD 10 contain any formal anger diagnoses.[9]   Instead anger is treated as a peripheral part of other diagnostic categories such as Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Intermittent Explosive Disorder among others. Recognizing the obvious diagnosis deficit, psychologists Eckhardt and Deffenbacher (1995) proposed the following five anger diagnoses: Adjustment Disorder with Angry Mood, Situational Anger Disorder without Aggression, Situational Anger Disorder with Aggression, General Anger Disorder without Aggression and General Anger Disorder with Aggression[10]

The obvious association of widely accepted and weighty psychological terms purports to add validity to an expanded medical definition. It also suggests the promotion by some of anger as a full blown mental illness.          

Therapeutic Treatment

Psychologists Kassinove and Tafrate emphasize the importance in developing a strong therapeutic alliance. They claim that “the most common factors which seem to lead to change were found to be the collaborative and affective bonds which develop between the practitioners and clients.”[11] Not surprisingly the predominant treatment offered in the secular research is the typical anger management step program.  

The central principle of anger management is that anger occurs when a need is frustrated. Beyond basic needs for food, clothing and shelter, the needs most frequently embedded in anger-provoking situations are grouped into two categories: Respect: a desire to be understood, and Territory, either physical or psychological.[12]   

Robert Allen utilizes a three step plan for optimal anger management.[13] In step one the client is taught to identify “the hook.” The hook is a metaphor for the lures that trigger anger. Most hooks fall into two categories; we get angry at circumstances that reflect injustice and incompetence. To help the client become more adapt at spotting hooks, he is to create a Hook Book where he writes down each anger event in the corresponding category. As the client reviews each event, he is to ask himself, “Who or what was involved? How did I feel? How did I react? How might I have responded instead?

The second step is to have the client identify the need. Need fulfillment is necessary for well-being.[14] Recognizing that anger is the result of a need being frustrated, the client is taught to look beyond the injustice or incompetence hooks to discover the unmet need, which is usually psychological in nature either for respect or territory. A client’s respect is violated when others do not try to understand them, fail to keep promises, make decisions without the client’s permission, impose their values on the client or make negative or abusive remarks.   A client’s territory is ‘trampled’ whenever someone else takes his property, makes too many demands on the client’s time, gets too close, wants too much intimacy, bombards the client with loud music or noise or otherwise encroaches on the client’s personal space.

The third step is to fill the client’s need. Whenever the client encounters a hook and identifies his need, he is taught to figure out how to substitute a need-fulfillment response for his angry reaction. He is to learn how to meet his own needs for respect and territory. As the client sets out to fill his need, he is to ask himself, “What goal am I trying to achieve? What outcome do I want?”

This secular worldview promotes assumptions which intensify our predisposition to fear man through a culture of victimization and an emphasis on self-esteem. The supreme interest has become the self: not God, not you, but me.   Psychologists have made their own contribution by offering therapeutic acceptance, unconditional love and constant affirmation. Such therapy rehabilitates the fear of man, not eliminate it. It just feels a little better because the client is putting hope in someone who is affirming rather than accusing. If you have money, your self esteem can be inflated by a warm empathic therapist.   The silent rebellion is committed to exalting self and rendering God as less than holy and sovereign, and anything that erodes the fear of God will strengthen the fear of man. [15]

Biblical View of Anger

Is it always a sin to be angry? The truth of the matter is that the Bible presents anger as sometimes sinful and sometimes righteous. In order to differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate anger, the biblical standard must be applied.  David Powlison presents an analysis of five general statements to assist in gaining a biblical understanding of anger.[16]  

First, the Bible is about anger. God is the angriest person in the Bible. According to Isaiah when God looks at evil, “His anger does not turn away”.   The Apostle Paul tells us that “The wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men” (Rom. 1:18).  John says the wrath of God “abides on whoever will not believe in the Son of God for mercy” and that anger was, is and will remain on their heads (John 3:36, 14-31).   

You can not understand God’s love if you don’t understand His anger. How does God’s anger bring glory to Himself and magnify His love? Foremost, in God’s love the anger our sin deserves fell on Jesus. God freely offered His innocent Son to bear the wrath deserved by all. In love, Jesus willingly took God’s full wrath.   Thus God’s loving anger is the basis of eternal life, the forgiveness of sin and justification by faith. God’s anger acted for us through Christ’s substitutionary atonement as He bore what we deserved.

God’s anger works to disarm the power of your sin. God continually deals with ever present sin in the believer’s life.   The indwelling Holy Spirit is a ‘burning fire of anger’ against evil, not to destroy us but to makes us anew. He remakes us into the image of Christ not by tolerating our sin, but by hating our sin in a way that we learn to love. 

God’s anger will deliver us from the pain of other’s sins. His anger at sin will be expressed for our ultimate well being in the future. God hates the way people hurt one another. In love He promises to deliver us from our enemies and destroy all causes of pain forever.   God’s wrath is the hope of His children and the despair of His enemies. 

The Bible is about the gospel that forgives and changes angry people. God’s grace poured out in the heart of the believer recreates one who was “enslaved to various lusts and pleasures, spending our life in malice and envy, hateful, hating one another (Titus 3:3) to wise, God-controlled loving people who are able to stand up and do good in this hostile world (Titus 2:11-3:8).  

Secondly, anger is something you do with all that you are as a person. Every part of human nature is involved. Anger is bodily, emotional, mental, and behavioral. Anger rarely stands alone and is usually accompanied by fear.   It complicates other problems and is often played out through substance abuse and immorality.   It is decidedly an interpersonal event. Anger has an object it seeks to coerce, intimidate and manipulate, including God. [17]

Many people live as though God exist to give them what they want, and when they don’t get it, they become angry at God. Addressing the specifics of anger against God is beyond the scope of this paper, but let it suffice to be said, “Anger against God is always wrong in that it accuses God of evil.”[18] 

Third, anger is natural to human beings because we were created in the image of God, and because we fell into sin. Being created in the image of God, we have the capacity for righteous anger at wrong. As sinners, the image of God is corrupted and anger is wrongly expressed as resentment and hatred. James speaks to the distortion sin brings to human anger; “Be slow to anger for the anger of man does not achieve the righteousness of God” (James 1:20). [19] 

Fourth, anger is learned in the way it is taught and modeled to us. With good reason the writer of Proverbs warned, “Do not make friends with a hot-tempered man, do not associate with one easily angered, or you may learn his ways and get yourself ensnared” (Proverbs 22:24). Anger is also learned in the way it is practiced and becomes second nature. [20]

Finally, anger is a moral matter.   It judges someone or something to determine if something is wrong, lacking or displeasing and then it takes action. Our anger is moral because it is also evaluated by God. Do we perceive good and evil accurately and respond in a godly way? Christianity is not about being above emotion and being self-controlled beyond caring. Neither is it about unleashing emotions. “He who is slow to anger has great understanding, but he who is quick tempered exalts folly” (Proverbs 14:29).   Contrary to the therapeutic cultural understanding, anger is not neutral it is either godly or sinful. Learning to discern the difference is extremely important.[21]

To assist in our discernment, Wayne Mack provides three characteristics of sinful anger.[22] First, our anger is sinful when we become angry for the wrong reasons, such as selfishness. Selfish anger is always a sin. Biblical examples include Cain anger toward Abel in Genesis 4, and Ahab regarding Naboth in 1 Kings 21, and Herodias against John the Baptist in Mark 6, and Saul against David in Samuel 18.    Our anger is also sinful when we allow our anger to control us.   Proverbs 16:2 tells us, “He who is slow to anger is better than the mighty and he who rules his spirit than he who captures the city.” The writer follows up in Proverbs 25:28 with, “Like a city that is broken into and without walls is a man who has no control over his spirit.”    Whenever we allow our anger to dictate how we act our anger is sinful. Lastly, Mack says our anger is sinful when it becomes the dominant feature in our life.   Proverbs 19:19 states, “A man of great anger will bear the penalty for if you rescue him, you will only have to do it again.” When anger is the immediate, natural response to stress, there is an addiction to anger. 

In biblically addressing an addiction, it is necessary to clearly understand the difference between the secular and biblical definition of addiction. The secular definition uses the word compulsive implying the individual cannot control the behavior at all; it is irresistible.    In this model, God cannot even stop the addict. Such contemplation results in blasphemy by laying blame upon God for the sinful behavior and denying His sovereignty.[23] However, if the word “compulsive” from the secular model is replaced with “persistent habitual behavior,” then a more biblically accurate definition of addiction is achieved. 

The truth established through the biblical definition permits hope.    The word compulsive allows the angry counselee to deny his own responsibility, to deny God’s power to change him, to blame his parent’s genetic make-up, to blame his parents for poor upbringing and to be angry at God for making him a compulsively angry creature.   The truth is that each individual is responsible and accountable to God for his own behavior. The habitual behavior may be so automatic that it appears to be compulsive, but in reality, it is planned in advance, and born from the thought-life of the sinner. By worldly standards this definition seems judgmental and offensive, but it is the only definition that offers true hope. Sinful habits are to be replaced by God-honoring habits (Eph 4-5, Colossians 3). [24]  

To better understand sinful anger’s effects, a review of a biblical description of an angry counselee is extremely insightful.[25]   The counselee has developed a life that is self-seeking which is based upon an unbiblical view of God. He fears man rather than God. There is resentment against authority which is ultimately rebellion against accountability to God.  His unbiblical view of self is built on pride. He behaves as if he is more important than anyone else, resulting in blame-shifting and a living a life dominated by his hurt feelings. There is no control of self and he is often impulsive. He is frustrated when things do not go his way. He complains often that he does not receive the respect he deserves.

In contrast to sinful anger, Robert D. Jones provides three differential criteria of righteous anger. Righteous anger reacts against actual sin. It comes from an accurate perception of sin as defined biblically (Rom. 3:23, 1 John 3:4). It does not come from being inconvenienced or from a violation of personal preference. Righteous anger focuses on God and His kingdom, rights and concerns, not on me, my kingdom rights and concerns. Righteous anger focuses on how people offend God and his name, not me and my name. Accurately viewing something as offensive is not enough. It must be viewed as offending God. Righteous anger is accompanied by other godly qualities and expresses itself in godly ways.   It does not spiral downward in self-pity or despair. It does not ignore, snub or withdraw from people. Righteous anger leads to godly expressions of worship, ministry and obedience. It is concerned for the well being of others and rises in defense of the oppressed. It seeks justice for victims, it rebukes transgressors. It calls for repentance and restoration. [26]    

Biblical Counseling Treatment Model

There seems to be universal agreement that anger must be tamed. Yet there is vast disagreement over the cause and the cure.[27]   The secular psychological model theorizes that anger is caused by inner, unconscious psychodynamic forces, childhood trauma or chronic bad nurturing, present sufferings, unmet emotional needs and physiological factors.   Scripture provides a deeper more realistic answer; anger comes from the heart.[28] The heart is the source of all human motivation. It is the wellspring of life (Prov. 4:23).   The heart is our true self and by nature it is selfish (Psalm 51:5), and the heart’s ever-present question is simply this: Who will you follow, worship and trust?   The choice is either the true God or idols (Joshua 24:15). All idols are objects of the heart’s self-centered affections (Ezek. 14:3). [29]

No one has to be taught idolatry. We are proud. We crave autonomy. We want to indulge our desires. Idolatry is about self—selfish desires, selfish wants. The heart is indeed an idol factory (Matthew 15:18-19).[30] The heart can be changed only by God (Psalm 51:10; Ezekiel 36:26) and it is there all biblical counseling must begin.

When providing biblical counseling there are three foundational principles that must be possessed and understood by the counselee.   First, one must be a Christian to understand God’s perspective on sinful anger and to gain insights to bring lasting change. Second, one must believe in the supremacy of Scripture, the Holy Bible. Lastly, one must believe that it is through partnership of the Holy Spirit, the Holy Scripture and one’s own obedience, that sanctification is available as a lifelong process. [31]

Once these three issues are settled, the next issue is to understand the distinctions between the secular approach to counseling and the biblical approach. This requires an exposure to the lies behind the lies of self-help groups, disease modeling and the “step process.”   God has made each Christian dependent upon Him and others. He supplies all the necessary resources to overcome anger.   They include; a Savior in Jesus Christ, the Bible, the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, the evangelical church, prayer, fellowship with believers in Christ in the local church.  Biblical teachings are the only answer because the Bible is the truth, it is sufficient to teach all things (2 Tim. 3:16-17) and it reveals God’s character in an accurate balanced manner.    The idea that anger is a disease implies some illness or thing has penetrated the body that needs treatment. This lie tells Christians that they are hopeless victims of a false disease. There is no medical or scientific evidence to support anger as a disease and the Bible does not either.   Ungodly anger is a sin nature problem. Lastly, we must address the issue of management techniques versus transformation. Management is defined as bringing back the homeostasis state, and it has the connotation of picking ourselves up by the bootstraps. Transformation is defined as having a change in character or condition. Christian must always be in the process of renewing their hearts, not returning to normalcy. (Romans 12:2).   Normal is the selfish, sinful personality.    

All Christians have three responsibilities in the transformation process; to put off the old habit patterns of the flesh, renew the mind with God’s Word, and put on godly habits of the Holy Spirit (Ephesians 4:22-24).  Sanctification is the work of the Holy Spirit, not a therapist.

Biblical Considerations in Counseling the Angry Christian
Understanding the biblical basis for sinful anger is vital in determining the proper issues for counseling. In summary, the angry Christian is motivated by both the fear of man and pride.
From Fear of Man to Fear of God

The key factor is putting off the worldly fear of man and replacing it with the biblical fear of God (Deuteronomy 13:4; Ecclesiastes 12:13; Isaiah 8:12-13; Matthew 10:28). The proper understanding, acceptance and application of this one principle will promote sanctification in the Christian’s life.    Psalm 128 provides a beautiful picture of the appropriate fear of God which will draw one toward God, not away from him. God has granted each believer the spirit of sonship and the right to call him Father (Romans 8:15). As a child of God, each believer is an heir of God and co-heir with Christ, destined to share Christ’s glory or image (Romans 8:17).     The fear of God is the inevitable response to a growing biblical understanding of and relationship with the true and living God who has revealed himself in Jesus Christ.[32]  The true Christian is committed to discipleship which brings conformity to the image of Christ.

The fear of God has motivating power. It will bring forth a loving and unreserved commitment to God. It will enable the believer to structure his life and make decisions according to God’s will, not his own selfish desires. He will become a man who walks with God in close fellowship.[33]

From Pride to Humility

Contrary to the secular psychological view, the problem is not that we love ourselves too little, but rather we think we deserve too much, and we love other people too little. Self-love or need-based therapies are destined for failure because they feed pride; the sin problem, not cure it.[34] 

Pride is the mindset of self (a master’s mindset rather than that of a servant): focused on self and the service of self, a pursuit of self recognition and self-exaltation, and a desire to control and use all things for self. [35]

Having decided upon seeking an appropriate fear of God, it is important to ask what is an appropriate view of self? Man has no worth in and of himself, but believers as sons of God, have been given a place not deserved.   We are unworthy before God (Psalm 8:1-4). We are wicked in his sight and incapable of any thing good on our own (John 15:5). Likewise, an appropriate view of self recognizes that we are not any better or worse than others (Romans 3:10-18). It is important that we voluntarily place ourselves lower than others in the will of God. A Christ-like mindset will focus on God-and-others just as the Lord lived[36]

Humility is the mindset of Christ ( a servant’s mindset): a focus on God and others, a pursuit of the recognition and exaltation of God, and a desire to glorify and please God in all things and by all things He has given. [37]

In order to get from pride to humility, there must be a humbling of one’s self before God (James 4:7-10).   True repentance is only possible through humility, and repentance is a continuous action involving the mind, body and soul. Likewise, we must humble every area of life, in our war against sinful pride.

Counseling for Overcoming Anger

A counseling plan for sinful anger is focused on practical directives that incorporate biblical truths needed for change.[38] The counselor will lead the counselee to understand, accept and implement each of the practical directives during the course of the counseling sessions. Each action is necessary for overcoming sinful anger. It is important that the counselee understands that the plan is a life committee and not a singular event.

The counselee shall repent of the evil desires that produce the angry behavior and to receive God’s forgiveness and enabling grace.  He must recognize and repent of the sinful beliefs and motives that cause him to reveal anger.   The heart idols must be uprooted.

 The counselee shall own responsibility for his angry behavior and identify it as evil before God and man.   He shall confess and renounce his sinful anger before God and others. He will be led to believe anew in Christ and His gospel promises to angry people. 

The counselee shall commit himself to taking active, concrete steps to replace his angry behavior with Christ-like words and actions. He will be required to establish and carry out a workable temptation plan to avoid unnecessary occasions that tempt him to show anger. The action plan will require that he remove himself when possible, as quickly as possible from explosive situations.    In the midst of temptation, the counselee will ask Christ for strength and recite key verses and biblical truths. 

The counselee shall enlist believers to pray for him, to counsel him and to hold him accountable. The counselee will maintain a journal of personal anger incidents to determine any patterns or commonalities present. The counselee must continue to prayerfully study Scripture and Scripture based resources on relevant topics. 

In addition to these practical directives, the counsel will include laying out some key factors in a biblical procedure for overcoming anger.[39] To win this battle over sinful anger, the counselee must deliberately choose to see everything that happens within the framework of the Sovereignty of God. He must also deliberately choose to give God thanks in the midst of everything and for everything. The counselee should seek to discover God’s purpose for the stressful situation, adopting a James 1:1-5 attitude. In the midst of the stressful situation, the counselee must seek to discover what God wants him to do. Finally, the counselee must turn over his rights to God. This means that he will seek to do everything in a biblical, God-honoring fashion; for biblical, God-honoring reasons, out of biblical, God-honoring motives. He must leave the results with God and believe that He will bring to pass what is right and good. 

Yes, I can overcome sinful anger and grow in Christ-likeness. I know this real transformation of my heart because Christ is continually remaking it into His perfect image.  "These things I have spoken to you, that in Me you may have peace. In the world you have tribulation, but take courage; I have overcome the world” (John 16:33).


Allan, Robert. Getting Control of Your Anger. New York: McGraw Hill, 2006.

American Psychological Association. "Controlling Anger--before It Controls You." APA Online, 2008. (accessed March 14).

Asher, Marshall and Mary Asher. The Christian's Guide to Psychological Terms. Bemidji: Focus Publishing, 2004.

Asher, Marshall and Mary. The Christian's Guide to Psychological Terms. Bemidji: Focus Publishing, 2004.

Brandt, Henry. "How to Deal with Anger." The Journal of Biblical Counseling 16, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 28-31.

Carter, Les. The Anger Trap. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003.

Cole, Steven J. "How John Calvin Led Me to Repent of Christian Psychology." The Journal of Biblical Counseling (Winter 2002): 31-39.

Guinness, Os. "America's Last Men and Their Magnificent Talking Cure." The Journal of Biblical Counseling 15, no. 2 (Winter 1997): 22-33.

Jones, Robert D. "Anger Against God." The Journal of Biblical Counseling 14, no. 3 (Spring 1996): 15-20.

________. Uprooting Anger: Biblical Help for a Common Problem. Phillipsburg: P & R Publishing, 2005.

Kassinove, Howard, and Raymond Chip Tafrate. Anger Management: The Complete Treatment Guidebook for Practitioners. Atascadero: Impact Publishers, 2002.

Mack, Wayne. Anger and Stress Management God’s Way. Merrick: Calvary Press Publishing, 2004.

Powlison, David. "Critiquing Modern Integrationists." The Journal of Biblical Counseling XI, no. 3 (Spring 1993): 24-34.

________. "Anger Part 1: Understanding Anger." The Journal of Biblical Counseling 14, no. 1 (Fall 1995): 40-53.

Scott, Stuart W. From Pride to Humility. Bemidji: Focus Publishing, 2002.
Shaw, Mark. The Heart of Addiction. Vestavia Hills: Milestone Books, 2006.

Welch, Edward T. "A Discussion Among Clergy: Pastoral Counseling Talks with Secular Psychology." The Journal of Biblical Counseling 13, no. 2 (Winter 1995): 23-34.

________. "Motives: Why Do I Do the Things I Do?." The Journal of Biblical Counseling (Fall 2003): 48-55.

________. When People are Big and God is Small. Phillipsburg: P & R Publishing, 1997.

Williams, Redford and Virginia Williams. In Control. New York: Rodale, 2006.


[1] Robert Allan, Getting Control of Your Anger (New York: McGraw Hill, 2006), 7.

[2] American Psychological Association, "Controlling Anger--before It Controls You," APA Online, 2008, (accessed March 14).

[3] Allan, Getting Control of Your Anger.15

[4] Ibid.,21.
[5] Ibid.,36-37
[6] Redford Williams and Virginia Williams, In Control (New York: Rodale, 2006), 23-24.

[7] Les Carter, The Anger Trap (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003), 43.

[8] Howard Kassinove and Raymond Chip Tafrate, Anger Management: The Complete Treatment Guidebook for Practitioners (Atascadero: Impact Publishers, 2002), 31-33.

[9] DSM IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association 1994/2000) and ICD 10: the International Classification of Diseases (World Health Organization (1999)

[10] Tafrate, Anger Management: The Complete Treatment Guidebook for Practitioners. 68-69

[11] Ibid., 100

[12] Allan, Getting Control of Your Anger.124

[13] Ibid., 207-09
[14] Ibid., 153.

[15] Edward T. Welch, When People are Big and God is Small (Phillipsburg: P & R Publishing, 1997), 73-88.

[16] David Powlison, "Anger Part 1: Understanding Anger," The Journal of Biblical Counseling 14, no. 1 (Fall 1995): 40-44

[17] Ibid.,44-45

[18] Robert D. Jones, "Anger Against God," The Journal of Biblical Counseling 14, no. 3 (Spring 1996): 16.

[19] Powlison, Anger Part 1: Understanding Anger, 46
[20] Ibid., 47
[21] Ibid., 48

[22] Wayne Mack, Anger and Stress Management God’s Way (Merrick: Calvary Press Publishing, 2004), 14-21.

[23] Mark E. Shaw, The Heart of Addiction (Vestavia Hills: Milestone Books, 2006), 30.

[24] Ibid., 31-33
[25] Marshall Asher and Mary Asher, The Christian's Guide to Psychological Terms (Bemidji: Focus Publishing, 2004), 12, 28, 93.

[26] Robert D. Jones, Uprooting Anger: Biblical Help for a Common Problem (Phillipsburg: P & R Publishing, 2005), 29-30.

[27] Henry Brandt, "How to Deal with Anger," The Journal of Biblical Counseling 16, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 28.

[28] Jones, Uprooting Anger. 47-48

[29] Edward T. Welch, "Motives: Why Do I Do the Things I Do?," The Journal of Biblical Counseling (Fall 2003): 48-51.

[30] Ibid., 52-53

[31] Mark Shaw, The Heart of Addiction (Vestavia Hills: Milestone Books, 2006), viii.

[32] Ibid., 7
[33] Ibid., 8-9

[34] Edward T. Welch, "A Discussion Among Clergy: Pastoral Counseling Talks with Secular Psychology," The Journal of Biblical Counseling 13, no. 2 (Winter 1995): 32.

[35] Stuart W. Scott, From Pride to Humility (Bemidji: Focus Publishing, 2002), 6.

[36] Ibid., 12
[37] Ibid., 18

[38] Jones, Uprooting Anger, 88-92

[39] Mack, Anger and Stress Management God’s Way, 91-116